What is “Malice” in Defamation Cases in San Diego and Los Angeles?

What is “Malice” in defamation cases?  My office is handling a libel case in which punitive damages arose. To prove malice (or oppression or fraud — related routes to punitive damages), one needs an idea of what constitutes malice and its partners. The defendant must be guilty of at least one of them and the plaintiff must prove them by an elevated …

How are Libel and Slander created in San Diego and Los Angeles?

A plaintiff can recover damages in various forms for libel and slander. Under California law, libel occurs “by writing, printing, picture, effigy or other fixed representation to the eye,” which exposes a person to “hatred, contempt, ridicule or obloquy, or which causes her or him to be shunned or avoided, or which has a tendency to injure [a person in her …